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The Arab Muslims were unable to conquer the entire Christian Byzantine Empire in Asia Minor, however.The succeeding Umayyad Caliphate attempted two failed sieges of Constantinople in 674–678 and 717–718.The original concept is derived from a pre-Islamic Persian prototype Hezār Afsān (Thousand Fables) that relied on particular Indian elements.Various characters from this epic have themselves become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin, Sinbad the Sailor and Ali Baba.
The first Islamic opaque glazes can be found as blue-painted ware in Basra, dating to around the 8th century.
According to tradition, he was supposedly commanded by Allah to convey this message to the people, and to be patient with those hostile to it.
These included the leaders of the Quraysh, the ruling tribe of Mecca, who opposed the assertion of tawhid (monotheism) and abolishing what Muhammed branded "idolatry", meaning the worship of gods other than Allah at the Kaaba, such as Hubal and the goddesses al-Lāt, Al-‘Uzzá and Manāt.
Meanwhile, the Muslim community tore itself apart into the rivalling Sunni and Shia sects since the killing of caliph Uthman in 656, resulting in a succession crisis that has never been resolved.
The following First, Second and Third Fitnas and finally the Abbasid Revolution (746–750) also definitively destroyed the political unity of the Muslims, who have been inhabiting multiple states ever since.